Important Points in Water Supply Engineering in PDF

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  • The per capita per day demand of water is taken as an average value over a period of one year.
  • The design period for the design of water supply project is generally taken as 20-30 year.
  • The consumption of water can be significantly reduced by having metered water supply.
  • The per capita consumption of water of a locality is affected by climatic conditions, quality of water and distribution pressure.
  • Coincident demand of water during firefighting is represented by maximum daily demand of water.
  • As compared to arithmetical increase method of forecasting population, geometrical increase method gives higher value.
  • The suitable method of forecasting population for a young and rapidly increasing city is geometrical increase method.
  • The suitable method of forecasting population for a large developed city is arithmetical increase method.
  • The suitable method of forecasting population for an old city not undergoing further development is geometrical increase method.
  • The growth of population can be represented by a logistic curve.
  • Water losses in a water supply system are assumed a 30 to 40 %.
  • The design period for a water supply scheme is normally taken as 25 years.
  • The earth’s water circulatory system is known as hydrologic cycle.
  • Well is not a surface source.
  • Surface reservoir is not a surface source.
  • The dead storage zone in a reservoir is provided for storage sand and silt.
  • The device which are installed for drawing water from the sources are called inlates.
  • A geological formation which not only stores water but yields it in sufficient quantity is known as aquifer.
  • A geological formation which is essentially impermeable for flow of water, even through it may contain water in its pores is called aquiclude.
  • Geological formations that do not contain groundwater at all are called aquifuges.
  • An aquifer confined at the bottom, and not at the top is called unconfined aquifer.
  • Groundwater is usually free from suspended impurities.
  • As compared to shallow wells, deep well have more discharge.
  • A shallow tube well may have a maximum yield of 5 lps.
  • A deep tube well may have a maximum yield of 200 lps.
  • The quantity of water available from an infiltration gallery depends on the size of the gallery and yield of the surrounding aquifer.
  • Shrouding is essentially provided in slotted type tube wells.
  • Tower type intakes are suitable for reservoirs, rivers and lakes.
  • Submered intakes are mainly suitable for small rivers and lakes.
  • The intake must be located in the pure water zone of the source.
  • The intake must never be located at downstream or in the victinity of the point of disposal of the sewage.
  • In the case of the meandering river the intake should preferably be located on cancave bank.
  • As far as possible the intake should never be located near or in the navigation channel.
  • For rivers with sloping banks and having wide variations in water surface levels the intakes which are preferred are portable intakes.
  • For flow in a gravity conduit the hydraulic grade line will always coincide with the water surface.
  • Hydraulic grade line for flow in a pressure conduit is always sloping downwards in the direction of flow.

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