Note of water Supply and Sanitary Engineering

  • Water required for pulp and paper industry should generally be free from iron, manganese and hardness.
  • For steel rolling mills the chloride content of process water should be preferable less than 150 mg/l.
  • The bacteria which survive in the absence of oxygen are called anaerobic bacteria.
  • The bacteria which survive in the presence as well as  absence of oxygen are called faculative bacteria.
  • If coliform bacteria is present in a sample of water, then the coliform test to be conducted is Presumptive test, Confirmed test and Completed test.


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  • The efficiency of sediment removal in a continuous flow type sedimentation tank does not depend upon depth of the tank.
  • Malaria is not water borne disease.
  • The Sedimentation process in water treatment involves settling of impurities in a tank under the action of gravitational force.
  • The phenolic compounds in public water supply should not be more than 0.001 ppm.
  • Surface loading or overflow rate for 3 sedimentation tank passing a discharge Q and having length L, width B and depth H is given by Q/BL.
  • The minimum dissolved oxygen which should always be present in water in order to save the aquatic life is 10 ppm.









  • For a rectangular sedimentation tank the length to width ratio should preferable be 5:1.
  • The maximum permissible limit for flouride in drinking water is 1.5 mg/l.
  • The dissolved oxygen level in natural unpolluted water at normal temperature is found to be of the order of 10 mg/l.
  • If the temperature of water in a sedimentation tank is increased the sedimentation speed will increase .
  • The velocity of flow of waterin a sedimentation tank is about 150 to 300 mm/minute.
  • The settling velocity of inorganic particles in a sedimentation tank of a water treatment plant is governed by Stoke law.
  • The treatments which are generally given to treat raw water follow  the sequence sedimentation, filtration and disinfection.
  • A blow-off valve is provided in a water distribution system at low points.
  • Summits are the points of low pressure.
  • Scour vales are provided at every depression and dead ends to drain out the waste water that may collect there.
  • Anchorages in water pipelines are provided at all bends, at all steep slopes and at other points of unbalanced pressure.
  • The type of valve which allows water to flow in one direction but prevents its flow in the reverse direction is reflux valve.
  • Surge tanks are used to guard against water hammer.
  • Type of valve which provided to control the flow of water in the distribution system at street comers and where the pipelines intersect is sluice valve.
  • In distribution pipes, air valves are provided at higher points.
  • The water miter which is installed on individual house connection is inferential meter.
  • Copper sulphate is widely used to control algae.
  • The design technique adopted in design of large water supply networks as an aid to simplify and separate the smaller loops is equivalent pipe method.
  • Hardy cross method of analysis of pipe networks of distribution system involves successive trials and is time consuming.
  • Activated carbon is used in water treatment for removing odour.

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